Published: Problems of regional ecology. 2020. №1. 60-73
Engineers engaged in spatial design in a “full” world faced the problem of missing knowledge about ecosystems changed by people and about the measures of conservation and restoration. Traditionally, scientists and experts in the field of biology and ecology sought to study mostly untouched ecosystems when solving research problems, trying to penetrate the essence of self-development of nature without the influence of human activity. Meanwhile, such useful knowledge turned out to be insufficient for solving the problems of ensuring sustainability of human-modified ecosystems. Spatial design had to deal with the problem of the lack of related methodologies and tools.
The article considers the features of ecosystem design as a new type of spatial project thinking based on the wider use of ecosystem services. This systematic approach allows goal-oriented engineering, institutional, and organizational measures aimed at preserving, restoring, and creating new ecosystem services to increase the resilience of human-modified ecosystems.
Keywords: human-modified ecosystems, ecosystem services, sustainable development, ecosystem resilience, ecosystem design.