A geo-system is a relatively integrated territorial entity formed in close interaction and interrelation between nature, people and the economy, whose unity is determined by direct, reverse and transformed connections that develop between its subsystems (Golubchik, 2005).
The relevance of this idea, which was formulated and developed most comprehensively by Schelling, for understanding the causes of environmental crises is specially emphasized by G. Immler, one of the leading German environmental management experts.
Environmental risk is the probability of an event with unfavorable consequences for the natural environment caused by the negative effects of economic and other activities, and by natural and human-made disasters (Fomenko G., 2011).
Polanyi considered that an institutional matrix directs economic relationships between people and determines the place of the economy in society; it sets the social sources of the rights and duties, which sanction the movement of goods and individuals at the start of, during and at the end of any economic process. Following the definition of Douglass North, the institutional matrix of a society is the basic structure of the ownership rights and political system inherent in the society. Both Polanyi and North believe that each society has its own specific institutional matrix.
We find no marked difference between neo-institutionalism and socioeconomics, whose approaches are most adequate to the needs of environmental management; moreover, on a number of points there is potential for a new synthesis between them. While neo-institutional economics aims to understand the nature of institutions (including their social and cultural aspects), socioeconomics strives to develop an alternative theory of stimuli, particularly as regards the value of work, which is deeply rooted in culture (work is motivated by numerous factors, including psychological, social and cultural incentives as well as incentives of an economic nature).
See the concluding document of the Rio+20 Summit, The Future We Want. URL: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N12/436/90/PDF/N1243690.pdf.
The Rio+20 Summit (2012) resolved to start work on the design of Sustainable Development Goals to supplant the Millennium Goals, which expire in 2015.
The Environment for Europe Ministerial Conference in Lucerne stated, “Setting the priorities basically means ensuring that the policies followed first will achieve the greatest gain relative to given objectives and available resources as well as receiving the most political attention” (1993). A similar conference in Sofia in 1995 also stressed that “setting the priorities is the key element in the development of Action Plans for rational resource use and environmental protection”.
Teleology, in its different forms, is encountered in Stoicism, Neo-Platonism, Leibniz’s theory of Pre-Established Harmony, Schelling’s “World Soul”, Hegel’s Objective Idealism, Neo-Kantianism, Neo-Thomism, Personalism, etc.
Resource managers include organizations, communities or even individuals. In the sphere of environmental management, the resource manager may be: a farmer with full title to a land plot or a leaseholder with the privilege of using the land at his disposal without ownership rights; a collective farm or an enterprise; a firm or a company; or a private or public organization exploiting natural resources. The size of the entity is of no importance.
Different branches of science focus on different aspects of conflict. In sociology, conflict is often regarded through the prism of mismatches between the interests and the values of the parties (social groups, communities, etc.). The same categories prevail in philosophy and political science. Psychology looks at conflicts mainly through motivational or cognitive concepts.
The concept of sustainable development goals was proposed at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012. It involves the design of a set of universal goals that strike a balance between the three aspects of sustainable development: social, economic and environmental.
This approach was applied by the holding of workshops in all districts of Yaroslavl Region, which formulated priorities for rational environmental management and conservation. The workshops were attended by 367 senior district officials (resource managers with main responsibility for practical decisions on environmental management and conservation). Priorities were formulated by “hands-on” methods, the results were summarized, analyzed and compared with environmental documents that had been previously developed and approved in the districts of the Region, and the main priorities for efficacious environmental management in the region were formulated.
Symbols are viewed as a certain socially fixed sign, which passes from generation to generation evoking a similar social response.
Measurement of the economic value of natural resources and eco-system services adjusted for non-economic value is based on neo-classical welfare economics, which examines the total welfare of society and evaluates alternative projects or measures with reference to changes in social welfare. In addition, some new methods have appeared which make it possible to take account of non-economic values in the course of economic evaluation of natural resources and eco-system services.
The theory of marginal utility or marginal cost is a counter-balance to the labor theory of value developed by K. Marx (hence the difficulty of its adaptation in Russia). It was developed by the representatives of the Austrian School: C.Menger, E. Böhm-Bawerk, F. Vieser, J,Schumpeter, as well as L.Walras (Lausanne School), W.Jevons and A.Marshall. According to the theory of marginal utility, the value of goods is determined by their marginal utility on the basis of subjective assessment of human needs. The marginal utility of a good means the benefit from consuming the last unit of that benefit, where the last benefit must satisfy the least important needs. Subjective value is the personal evaluation of the good by the buyer and seller; while the objective value is formed by the exchange relations and prices generated by market competition. As the buyer’s needs are satisfied, the utility of the good decreases.
The Specialized Center for Health Risk Assessment at Cadaster Institute was established in 2008 and is an accredited health risk assessment agency (as of 2010) and a certified agency (as of 2013) of the Voluntary Health Risk Assessment Certification System.
The European Union adopted the Waste Frame Directive (Directive 2008/98/ЕСof the European Parliament and the Council of 19 November 2008).
UNEP (2011), Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication (the preprint can be found at:http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy). See also: http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/GlobalGreenNewDeal/tabid/1371/language/en-US/Default.aspx.
Having defined the economy as a phenomenon of spiritual life, S.N.Bulgakov made an important step in the direction of the behavioral model of homo responsabilis developed in the present work. Recognition of the significance of spiritual incentives in economic activity meant a departure from the model of homo economicus, while the statement of the organic wholeness of humankind as economic agent undermined the principle of individualism as the fundamental concept of classical economics.
The term “resource users” was suggested by G.White in 1961 and means influential individuals and entities whose everyday decisions mostly determine specific forms of environmental management.
The Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Environment and Development adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development on 3-14 June 1992; Agenda 21 was adopted by the UN Conference on Environment and Development on 3-14 June 1992.
The Action Program of Environment Protection for Central and Eastern Europe was adopted by the Environment Ministers of European countries at the Environment for Europe conference on April 28-30 in Lucerne; The Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy was adopted at the Sofia Conference of Europe Environment Ministers under the aegis of the Council of Europe and UN Economic Commission for Europe in 1995.
The work was carried out in 1996 (Project for Efficient Environmental Management (creation and development of a system of comprehensive environmental management in Yaroslavl Region)). It was stated in 2013, at meetings of task forces as part of the All-Russian Conference on formation and implementation of environmental policy at regional level, that the priorities had not changed (Conference Resolution).
The most widely used and accepted definition of the “green economy” is that formulated by UNEP (2011), by which the green economy is “one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities.”
Data of the Russian Federal Service of Statistics.
Rosstat carried out experimental accounting in 2010 assisted by specialists in environmental economics.
“Environmentally unfriendly products” refers to a large group of products of varying toxicity and harmfulness, the production, consumption and utilization of which have negative impact on the natural environment.
It is explicitly mentioned in only a few (mainly foreign) studies (Badie,1992).. Authors who touch on this range of problems include D.North, T.Eggertsson, G.Myrdal, K Arrow, J.P.Buchanan and G.Tullock, and Russian names include V.A.Mau, R.Nureyev, Ya.Kuzminova, A.Shastitko, A.Oleinik, R.Kapelushnikov.
A priori (Lat.) means knowledge acquired prior and independent of experience, i.e., something known beforehand. This philosophical term was of great significance in the theory of cognition and logic thanks to the work of I.Kant. The idea of a priori knowledge is related to the inner sources of thought. The opposite term is a posteriori, i.e., knowledge obtained from experience (empirical knowledge).
Even a positive preliminary assessment cannot guarantee successful importation as it is impossible to take account of all of the specifics of the importing territory, primarily socio-cultural specifics.
The most interesting are the studies by R.Hardin (Hardin, 1996) who proposed theoretically viable, although not ideal solutions. He formulated two criteria that can be used to see why one option is preferred over the other: mutual advantage and melioration.
The most important socio-cultural indicator for environmental work (Fomenko, 2014).
“Strong” sustainability, which is the ultimate goal of current development, has only been implemented in a number of countries; development indicators in Yaroslavl Region show that it is too early to set such a goal.
Special attention was given to the opinions of management experts and practicing ecologists, and members of the general public, collected by means of interviews and questionnaires at district and regional levels.
According to methodology of the System of National Accounts, it is calculated as capitalization of earnings from the use of main natural resources using a social discount rate of 3%.
PESTLE analysis is based on universal and abstract models of the PEST type, which use four broad categories: Political, Economic, Social and Technological; supplemented (appropriately to the object of study) by two more factors: Legal and Environmental.
According to a report by the OECD, 70% of the world population will live in cities and towns (OECD Environmental Outlook, 2012)
The latter is particularly important, because, instrumentally, environmental activity does not only depend on understanding the importance of establishing effective universal restrictions and regulations but also on the cultural codes limiting the range of choice of acceptable solutions, even though opportunities for obtaining new information have greatly expanded (the Internet, etc.).
The special literature has numerous definitions of the term “strategic environmental assessment”. In a most general way, it can be defined as a process of systematic analysis of the environmental effects of plans, programs, policies and other strategic initiatives and inclusion of their results in decision making.
“Place” is a combination of economic, social, cultural, spiritual, environmental and other features of a local territory, specified spatially and temporally. Such an approach to the notion of “Place” is close to the category of Da-sein, proposed by M. Heidegger (1997).
The planning concept “A city for women and children”, despite its validity, was not easily accepted in Germany. M. Mukho’s ideas, expressed in her book Children’s Living Space in Big Cities as early as the beginning of the 1930s were not implemented until the 1960s. This suggests, on the one hand, that action to implement similar ideas in Russia should not be delayed and, on the one hand, that we should not harbor illusions of rapid success.
The problem of survival of trees in cities is important in Russia. Trees in several central streets of Yaroslavl are gradually dying, probably due to asphalting of soil around the trees with asphalt and compaction it by the passage of numerous pedestrians. In 1993, an attempt was made to replant lime trees along Kirov Street, where they had been surrounded by asphalt and subjected to intensive pedestrian traffic. The trees, planted using new technology borrowed from Germany, have taken hold.
According to J.Beuys, on 19 May 1933, when the Nazis began their mass actions of burning undesirable literature, he managed to save the Systema Naturae of Carl Linnaeu.
During the Documenta international art exhibition in Kassel in 1982, a huge pile of basalt stones placed in front of the city museum was gradually taken apart as new trees were planted.
These documents were approved by the experts and the Town Administration at the workshop, Incorporation of Sustainability Indicators in Management Practice in Mezhdurechensk, held in September 2002) and then adopted at a session of the Committee of the Town Administration for Environmental Management.
The project was supported by the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Center (Project No. 96-02-02108).
A resource manager can be an organization, a community or even an individual. With respect to environmental management it can be a farmer who has full ownership of land or a tenant farmer entitled to use land at his own discretion but without ownership; a collective farm or business; a company or group; or a private or public organization that makes use of natural resources.The size of the respective entity is immaterial. The term “resource managers” was suggested by G. White in 1961.
Theoretically possible sources of household water supply were studied within a radius of 500 meters from the villages, because villagers would not fetch water from sources further away. All possible sources were recorded except for rooftops, as this source is seasonal, available to everybody and used everywhere as an auxiliary source. Where several wells or holes were located close together, have the same purpose and are used by one household, they were recorded as a single source.
The project was supported by the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation (Project No. 6-02-02108).
The principle of “multiple use” of natural resources, including forests, has been made a principle of national policy in the environmental sphere in many countries. In the USA, this principle has been implemented since the 1960s in the form of the Multiple Use - Sustained Yield Act, which defines multiple use as follows:
•the management of all renewable surface resources of national forests to ensure their combined use in a way that will best meet the needs of the American people;
•most judicious use of land for processing of some of these resources or deployment of respective services over sufficiently large areas to provide latitude for periodic adjustments in use, reacting to changing needs and conditions;
•Limitations on land use in some districts;
• harmonious and coordinated management of various resources, without impairment of land productivity, consideration being given to the relative values of the various resources and not necessarily choosing the combination of uses that will give the greatest dollar return or the greatest unit output.
Agenda for the 21st Century, Chapter. 8 – Integrating the environment and development in decision making, including:
(а) integrating environment and development in politics, planning and management
(b) creating efficacious legal and normative structure
(c) providing for efficacious use of economic mechanisms and market stimuli
(d) creating systems for integrated accounting of environmental and economic factors.
The documents of the UN General Assembly Session “Five Years after Rio” (1997) formulated 10 major principles of environmental policy (“New Environmentalism”). One of them calls for attention to environmental factors in the basic evaluation of natural resources as an essential prerequisite for efficacious use of market mechanisms in environment protection and sustainable development.
The work was carried out in 1996-2001 by request of the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources, administrations in Yaroslavl, Tomsk, Ryazan, Kaluga, Kaliningrad, Kostroma Regions and the governments of Saratov Region and the Republic of Karelia.
The opinion poll of resource managers regarding sustainable development was carried out in 1996 in all 17 districts of Yaroslavl Region by experts of Cadaster Institute at the request of the regional government.
Resolutions of the 9th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (Bonn, Germany, 19-30 May 2008); Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, 2004); proceedings of the 5th World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, 2004, etc.
The Federal State Budgetary Institution for SPNAs is a non-commercial organization established by the Russian Federation to ensure that government bodies properly exercise their powers established by the laws of the Russian Federation for conservation of unique and typical natural sites, landmarks, flora and fauna, genetic heritage, study of natural processes in the biosphere and monitoring of its changes, as well as environmental education.
Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (2004), Pan-European Strategy for Biological and Landscape Diversity (Geneva, Strasburg, February 7, 2006), etc.
This is confirmed by the latest documents of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversityand theStrategic Plan for Biodiversity for 2011-2020 and the targets for preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity approved in Aichi (Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Nagoya, Japan, 2010), which acknowledge the economic value of biodiversity to be an important base for increasing the volume of benefits to people from biodiversity and eco-system services and for combatting the main causes of biodiversity loss.
The project was supported by the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and by an agreement signed by the Administration of Tomsk Region, its Committee for Environmental Management and the Committee for Natural Resources with Cadaster Institute in 1999-2000, with the participation of specialists from Tomsk Region, A.M.Adam, M.R.Tsibulnikova, etc. The findings are detailed in Research Report No.7/2000: Economic Foundations for Conflict Prevention in the Environmental Sphere as Exemplified by the Ob-Tom Interfluve Area.
Definition by the USA Environment Protection Agency (EPA).
Opinion polls conducted by the Levada-Centre in 2015.